Monday, 30 Nov 2020

[안녕, 블록체인] 비트코인 백서 10주년, 성공 또는 실패?

비트코인 백서 블록체인

[안녕, 블록체인] 비트코인 백서 10주년, 성공 또는 실패?


‘암호’라는 단어에서 무엇이 연상되는가? 나는 제일 먼저 군대가 떠오른다.

 

비트코인이라는 것을 조금씩 알아가는 과정에서 암호학(cryptography)이라는 분야를 처음으로 진지하게 만나면서 적잖이 충격을 받았다.

암호학 분야의 선구자들은 내 상상과 달리 군대와는 거리가 멀었다.

국가의 감시로부터 개인의 자유와 프라이버시를 암호기술을 통해 지켜내기 위해 감옥에 가는 걸 무릅쓰고 싸워온 사람이 많았다.

보통 ‘사이퍼펑크’로 불리는 이들은 기술로 무장한 운동가이자 사상가이다.

 

무엇보다 내 무식을 탓해야겠지만,

민주주의의 역사가 짧은 분단국가라는 환경도 암호학이라는 분야에 대한 오해 혹은 선입견에 일조했을 터다.

아는 만큼 보이는 법이다.

 

비트코인과 블록체인의 본질이 ‘탈중앙화’에 있다는 말은 이제 누구나 한다.

그러나 똑같이 ‘탈중앙화’라는 말을 쓰면서도 사람마다 초점은 제법 다른 것 같다.

 

사이퍼펑크 계통의 근본주의자들이 탈중앙화를 말할 때 초점은 ‘검열 저항성’에 있다.

누구의 감시도 받지 않고, 누구도 막을 수 없는 거래. 사이퍼펑크의 대부로 꼽히는 티머시 메이가 1992년 발표한 ‘크립토 무정부주의자 선언’은 개인의 자유가 최고의 가치이기에 실크로드와 같은 다크웹을 통한 마약거래, 조세회피, 심지어 청부살인 등 범죄행위까지 용인한다.

요즘 한창 암호화폐에 대해 고객파악제도(KYC)나 자금세탁방지(AML) 등을 적용하려는 시도를 절대 받아들일 수 없는 사람들이다.

 

 

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최근 만난 금융계의 저명한 전문가는 내게 “세계에서 제대로 운영되는 중앙은행이 몇이나 된다고 생각하느냐”고 물었다.

그가 보기에 10여곳을 제외한 나머지 중앙은행은 독재자와 권력자들의 이익을 위해 멋대로 통화정책을 펼치고 있다.

그는 변덕스럽거나 무능하거나 악의가 있는 중앙권력이 없는 비트코인이 민주주의와 법치가 자리 잡지 못한 대다수 국가의 화폐 시스템을 대체하는 게 낫다고 주장했다.

그가 말하는 ‘탈중앙화’의 초점은 불량 정부를 대체할 수 있는 새로운 권위에 있다.

 

누구나 화폐 혹은 토큰을 발행할 수 있고, 이를 통해 전에 없던 보상 시스템을 만들어낼 수 있다는 데 주목하는 이들도 있다. 요즘 우후죽순 쏟아져 나오는 블록체인 프로젝트가 대부분 이쪽에 속한다.

4차 산업혁명, 국가 경쟁력 등의 표현도 주로 이쪽에서 나온다.

비즈니스가 가장 우선인 이들은 암호화폐를 제도권 안으로 끌어들이기 위해 안간힘을 쓰고 있다.

 

10월31일 비트코인 백서가 공개된 지 10년이 됐다.

그동안 너무나도 이질적인 생각과 욕망을 가진 수많은 이가 비트코인 주변으로 몰려들었다.

지금의 비트코인 생태계가 초기의 사상과 너무 멀어졌다는 비판이 나온다.

올해 초 2000만원을 넘겼던 가격이 500만원대로 폭락한 것을 두고 이제 비트코인은 망했다는 관측도 있다.

그래서 10돌을 맞은 비트코인 실험은 성공인가, 실패인가?

내 주제에 답을 낼 수 없는 질문인 것만은 분명하다.

그럼 누가 답을 할 수 있을까? 컴퓨터 공학자? 암호학자? 금융 전문가? 경제학자? 사업가? 법률가?

 

기사등록 : 2018-11-21

출처 : http://www.hani.co.kr/arti/opinion/column/871215.html

http://news.blood.land/2018/11/22/안녕-블록체인-비트코인-백서-10주년-성공-또는-실패/

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